Wine Vinegar How-To

After the ball is over, you can make vinegar with what’s left in the bottle!

Calling all booze hounds!  Or not.  You could be a teetotaler who entertains and this would still be a kickass thing for you to make.  Why?  Because it takes a bowl, some stuff you were going to throw away and a touch of living vinegar (homemade or Bragg’s will do) to make something that will give your food a ton of flavor.  Also, it’s not necessarily cheap to buy decent red wine vinegar, and this is virtually free to make.

We entertain a lot.  Or we did, in the period between crazy and über-crazy (aka parts of the last two years).  These days our gatherings consist of having a couple friends over for dinner when we can scrape together the collective energy to mop our floors and vacuum our couch.  But our favorite kind of party is the kind that I used to blog about.  We call it Brunch ‘Til Dawn.  Although the title is somewhat self-explanatory, I’ll explain.  We have a brunch to celebrate something, but we make enough food to feed 20-25 people two to three times because typically we start at noon and go to the wee hours.  There is likely be some form of Kinect dancing, along with some karaoke, if I have my druthers.   There could be jai alai in the street, depending on the hour and the mood of the crowd.  There will definitely be copious amounts of food and drink.  And inevitably, my husband and I will be too tired to do all the party clean-up before we crash out for the night/morning.

Surface area is good for vinegar making! This is aerobic fermentation!

This lazy practice has led to more than one quarter-full bottle of decent or (*sobs*) excellent wine ending its life open on the counter for too many hours.   But I’m nothing if not optimistic.  When life (or my own bad habit) gives me wine that’s been exposed to too much oxygen, I make vinegar.  I think you should too.

Wine Vinegar

Yields ~1 cup vinegar (expect some evaporation).  Can be scaled for any amount of leftover (or even just-opened) wine.

Contrary to what I’ve read in several places, you in no way need a physical mother of vinegar to make your own batch.  Real, living (not pastuerized) vinegar will definitely do the trick as a starter.  For my first batch I used Bragg’s, but ever since then I’ve used my own.  I eventually made a batch of vinegar that spontaneously grew its own mother and now I get a new mother forming on the surface of my vinegar every so often, whether I use one to kick off a new batch or not.  I like to make small quantities of this with whatever I have left after a fête.  Give it a mix whenever you think of it.  Air is your friend.  The acetobacter (not a typo) responsible for vinegar fermentation are abundant in the air, and they need oxygen to survive, so mix those guys in and enjoy the tasty, tasty product.

Add vinegar that has not been heat-treated, such as Bragg’s, to your unwanted wine to get this going. No mother needed.


  • 1 cup wine
  • 3 tablespoons starter vineagar, use a living variety.  Homemade if you can get it.  Bragg’s is good too!

Do It:

  1. Pour your leftover (not from people’s glasses) wine into a vessel with a large surface area, such as a bowl or wide-mouthed jar.
  2. Add starter vinegar.
  3. Stir it all up, very vigorously
  4. Cover with a towel (secured with a rubber band or string) and let it sit at room temperature, stirring vigorously when you think of it (preferably daily), until a thin, gelatinous film starts to form on the surface. That will form into the mother.  You will probably see it form 7-10 days after you begin the process. With small amounts like this, I start tasting it at 3 weeks.  It can take longer than a month, though.
  5. Once it tastes more like vinegar and less like wine, move it to an airtight container, with very little surface area exposed.  Swingtops and sealable wine bottles of the appropriate size work great.  Although air is critical to the process of vinegar fermentation, continued exposure to air once you have your vinegar is a good way to ruin it/make it not be vinegar any more.  (I have been storing my vinegar wrong for ages.  I learned this in The Art of Fermentation.  Which you should buy.  Today.)

Now that you’ve conquered wine vinegar. How about trying some fruit vinegar?


  1. says

    Thank you for this! I love that I can make it without a mother. Now I only need to find a half-finished bottle of old wine, which is a rarity in my house (not because I am a teetotaler, unfortunately, but because I am a lush. so wish me luck!)

  2. Amanda says

    Hi Ruthy! Sorry I’m just seeing this now!
    I’m with you! I’m not a huge drinker, but my husband usually picks up my slack. If you love wine vinegar or just want to try out the process, you can totally use “fresh” wine, but then you lose the conservation value. A bottle of crappy wine can make a pretty decent bottle of wine vinegar, though!

    • Amanda says

      Most common response I’ve heard, Fred! :-)
      Feel free to use 2 buck chuck or another non-leftover cheapo wine. They do the trick just as well. Sometimes I think a bad wine is improved by being turned in to vinegar!

  3. Christina says

    “Contrary to what I’ve read in several places, you in no way need a mother of vinegar to make your own batch. … For my first batch I used Bragg’s…”

    Bragg’s has the mother in it–that’s a prominent part of their branding–so I’m not sure that using it as a starter counts as not using a mother. It just means you don’t have to come up with a mother of your own, having purchased an ingredient that includes it already.

    • Amanda says

      Hi Christina,

      Thanks for you input. Bragg’s is indeed living vinegar and contains, per their advertising “the mother.” My comment about the mother refers to an actual mother (aka SCOBY), that one would have to obtain. Many vinegar recipes call for this, and I wanted people to understand that if they are using a living vinegar, the bacteria and yeast present in it are sufficient for starting a new batch, so they don’t need to spend the time or effort seeking out a mother. When I use my own vinegar, I filter it and there is no solid (or even wispy, gelatinous) mother present. As long as the vinegar is alive, it will work! As with kombucha, the microorganisms present will often form a new mother that can then be used for future batches, but it is not a necessary element for vinegar-making.

      Thanks again!


    • Amanda says

      Hi Anja,

      Yes, Braggs works great! I started my first batch with Braggs Apple Cider vinegar. Now I use my own as a starter, but I got going with Braggs.

  4. Tim C G says

    Since wine has so many chemicals in it, I usually make my vinegar out of straight apple, grape juice, blueberry and I am actually making pomegranate vinegar right now. I usually put about 3/4 juice (100% pure) and 1/4 Braggs ACV with the mother. I also cut up some apple with the peals and core and place in jars (I have also put cut up bananas, pears and whole blueberries in it). Cover with cheese cloth and place in cabinet in warm garage. If it stays hot, you have vinegar in a couple weeks, if cooler, maybe a month or longer. Every now and then it goes bad, who knows why. Good luck.

    • Amanda says

      Yup, you can make vinegar out of just about anything! See the most recent post for my cherry scrap vinegar how-to. As for wine having so many chemicals, I worked at a winery and I was pretty fine with everything that went into the process. Lots of different options for vinegar-making, though, if you don’t like or can’t have wine. It can basically be made out of anything that has sugar!

      I like to have several varieties on hand, since they all offer a distinctive flavor profile that can really distinguish a meal.

      Enjoy your vinegar!

  5. Mitzi says

    I stumbled upon this article because I soo badly want to make my own, but I’m scared :0 If I taste it after 3 weeks and it’s nasty, I would assume it’s gone rancid. Will that make me sick? And, (newbie here) what is a living vinegar? Can I just use my Heinz white vinegar as a starter? AND, when you say you use your own now, how do you do that? Skim the film off the top? Is that a mother? How do you store it?

    • Amanda says

      Hi Mitzi,

      I totally feel you! Don’t be afraid, though. Just give it a shot and see what happens. If you don’t like the taste at three weeks, evaluate why. Was it not vinegary enough? Was it too acidic and not flavorful enough? If the former, ferment it for a few more days before tasting again. IF the latter, it probably went too long or was in too warm of a spot in your home.

      You Heinz vinegar will not work because it has been pasteurized, and all of the living bacteria are dead. The only nationally available living vinegar I’m aware of is Bragg’s although there are bound to be others out there I don’t know about.

      When the vinegar tastes how you want it to taste, you need to remove the blob on the surface (yes, that’s the mother). You can use it to culture a new batch of vinegar or give it away. Once your vinegar is done, you need to move it to an airtight container. Air is your friend during fermentation, but once it’s at an acidity that you like, it’s time to put it in a bottle that seals.

      I hope that helps! There really is nothing to be afraid of!

      • Greg says

        What is the best way to store the mother between batches? Thanks, Amanda! I recently stumbled across your site and am loving everything I’m finding here! Great work!

        • Amanda says

          Thanks so much, Greg!

          You can store the mother in some finished vinegar at room temperature. Just a note: you don’t need to reuse the Mother. If you have a compost pile, you can stick the mother in there for some happy compost.

          There are conflicting thoughts on whether it’s good or not to reuse the Mother. I haven’t found that it makes a ton of difference either way. I have found that living vinegar is needed whether or not you use the Mother, so I always use that. In short, don’t feel bad if you need to toss the mother.

  6. Casey says

    I have a lot of wines that I have gotten from the winery I currently work for. If I start a batch larger than 1 cup do I also double the amount of braggs?

    • Amanda says

      Hi Casey,

      Go for about 15% starter vinegar; slightly less in the summer, slightly more in the winter. You can really do any quantity wine, so no worries on doing a larger batch. Let me know how you like it!


  7. Naiya says

    This is my first time considering making vinegar and I have a few questions.
    I have about 1&1/2 cup of leftover wine (1981 Cab) that went sour the day after I opened it and I want to use that to make some vinegar.
    I was wondering if I can use a glass pitcher and if so do I have to sterilize that before storing the wine in that? The original bottle is also a very big bottle, which contained about 4 (750mL) bottles, so can I use that to store the wine and make vinegar?
    I also have some homemade vinegar (made in 1992), which was given to me this year (minus the mother…I think), but I was wondering if I could use that or should I use Bragg apple cider vinegar?
    Last question, can I add wine periodically to the fermenting batch to increase the volume?

  8. Amanda says

    Hi Naiya,

    I do not sterilize for fermentation, generally speaking. I always ensure that everything is very clean, but sterilization is rarely necessary.

    A glass pitcher would work great, provided that it has a wide opening. You need air for vinegar fermentation, and the more air exposure it has, the better. For this same reason, I wouldn’t recommend fermenting in the large wine bottle you mentioned.

    For storage, you want as little air exposure as possible, so depending on the amount of the final product, a wine bottle may work quite well.

    An aged, homemade vinegar could make an excellent starter (although if it is very fine, using it as a starter may be a waste), but only if it hasn’t been pasteurized after fermentation. I’m guess with a 21-year-old vinegar, pasteurization probably did occur. The key thing is to use a living vinegar, and pasteurization will have killed off all of the living organisms needed for fermentation.

    I personally do add fresh wine into my vinegar bowl periodically. It has always worked great for me!

    I hope that helps!

    Happy New Year!

  9. Tim says

    Great article! I will use Braggs ACV to use as a starter.
    Does the vinegar have to be fresh? What happens if say, the vinegar has been on the shelf for a while and not tightly sealed – will it still do as a starter?

    • Amanda says

      It should be fine, Tim. I read in The Art of Fermentation that after some time the acetobacter will turn the vinegar into water and carbon dioxide, but I think it takes quite a long time for that to happen. Taste your vinegar; if it still tastes like vinegar, you should be good to go!

  10. Thomas Adair says

    I have a bottle of wine that looks like it’s corked. It sitting on is side and there is some small seepage from the cork. I can use this safely? I guess it is almost vinegar anyways!

    • Amanda says

      Hi Thomas,

      I would, but for your well-being, I have to offer you a caveat. If the wine is corked, there could be less desirable organisms in there like molds, that might not make for the tastiest vinegar. You can always give it a try and if you see anything on the surface that looks like mold instead of a mother, use your discretion and toss it.

      Let me know what you decide to do!

  11. Sally says

    Hi Amanda,
    I live in Australia :o) thanks for blog. I have a commercial red wine vinegar, 1/3 full and it has a layer of something (perhaps”mother”??) on top of the liquid inside the bottle. So potentially I could use this?

    • Amanda says

      Hi Sally,

      The majority of commercial vinegars are pasteurized and therefore not suitable to use as a starter (although it’s possible that’s not true in Australia. I’d be happy to come over and do some research!), but if you definitely have a Mother on it, that would mean that it’s unpasteurized. Ideally it would say on the bottle that it’s living, raw, or unpasteurized, but if you can see the blob and you can identify it as a mother, you should be good. Make sure the vinegar you’re using looks and smells alright, and that the mother is in good condition (no mold, etc). I hope that helps!

  12. Danielle says

    I haven’t seen anyone comment on whether or not you can mix various different leftover wines to make vinegar. I have heard you can mix all kinds of wines together (even reds and whites) and get a good-tasting vinegar. Is that correct?

  13. Scott says

    Can I use a light resistant plastic container? I have a 5-gallon plastic container with spigot for water for camping. If I leave upright without the lid, covered with cheese cloth, there should be plenty of circulation. Then when it’s time to draw off the vinegar, I imagine I could just replace lid with spigot and pour. Thoughts?

    • Amanda says

      Hi Scott,

      I’m very inexperienced with fermenting in plastic. I generally prefer to avoid it, but if you know that your bucket is food-safe, it should be fine. You’ll certainly get a nice big batch and some great circulation out of it.

      I’d love to hear how it turns out for you.

      Happy Fermenting!

      • Aaron says

        My Italian father-in-law keeps his home made vinegar in a plastic air tight container and it’s worked for 30+ years. So feel free to use it.

  14. Laura says

    I have been trying to make vinegar and I am not sure what I have done wrong. What I have tastes like vinegar but there is no gelatinous blob. I mixed Bragg’s with some red wine in a sun tea container (glass) covered in cheese cloth. There is a bit of some type of sediment at the bottom, but wouldn’t the mother float? I keep it in a cupboard because I was told to keep it in a dark place. Help?

    • Amanda says

      Hi Laura,

      How long has it been fermenting? Also, did you stir? It’s possible that the mother was very thin. If that’s the case, is it possible that while it was forming you stirred it back in?

      Vinegar mothers tend to be much thinner and more easily destroyed than kombucha SCOBYs, so that is something to consider. If it smells and tastes like vinegar and has been fermenting for 3 to 4 weeks at normal, room temperature, you’re probably fine. You might get a much more substantial mother on the batch you make using your homemade vinegar as a starter.

  15. Sarah says

    Hi Amanda,
    Once the gelatinous mother forms on the surface, do I stop stirring the starter wine every day? After that, do I just let it do it’s thing undisturbed until I start taste testing?

  16. Whosdriving says

    Hi Amanda,

    I recently started working on making vinegar following your instructions above. One thing I’m curious about. I’ve read other peoples instructions too and you seem to differ on stirring. Yours suggest to stir vigorously each day which I have been doing. Others seem to suggest no movement at all. I guess I’m curious if you’ve tried it that way and what differences you found? Also others seem to suggest diluting the wine with water, which you don’t. So curious as to your thoughts about that too.


    • Amanda says


      I can’t speak to the process of others, but stirring before the mother forms is an important step for a better tasting product in my opinion. It draws bacteria (in wine vinegar) and yeast (in fruit or other vinegars) into the mix, which help the process work. It also totally prevents the formation of unwanted surface molds while the product is fully acidifying. This step replicates what you get from starter vinegar, but I find that it makes for a tastier and more consistent product. Thanks for reading!

  17. Esther says

    Thank you for all the advice you give on making vinegar.! My question is, after the mother has formed and I am happy with the taste, do I bottle the mother with my finished product? If not, can I store it to use later for another batch.

    • Amanda says

      Hi Esther,

      You do remove the mother. I like to strain vinegar through a fine mesh strain to remove an excess bits of mother floating around in there. Bottle it a container that seals tightly and closely fits the amount of vinegar you have after fermentation.

      Thanks for reading!

  18. Phil D says

    I how have several bottles of homemade red wine vinegar (mother based) that are several years old. In old wine bottles with cork or screw cap. But now I am hesitant to use or taste them not knowing their condition. Is there a way to test or to refresh the vinegar? When fresh it was great on salads. Or is it so old I should use it as a cleaning agent rather on a salad?

    • Amanda says

      Hi Phil,

      What does it smell like? In theory, if it’s been in corked wine bottles, or generally kept away from the air, you should be fine!

  19. janet says

    Hi Phil,
    I’m so glad to find your website–thanks for all the info. I have a year old bottle of fruity raspberry wine. Can I use Bragg’s ACV to get it started to make a traditionally fermented raspberry wine?

    • Amanda says

      Hi Janet,

      If you add living vinegar to wine, and add air, you will end up with vinegar. Wine is made through fermentation, so the product you have is likely already fermented.

      I hope that answers your question?



  20. Tom says

    Thanks for the insights —

    If I were to make my own vinegar, for arguments sake let’s say 3 cups of vinegar. Can I just keep using it and topping it off with fresh wine? If so, do I need to wait some amount of time to use the topped off vinegar?

    Mainly wondering because we usually have a small amount of wine left over nearly daily (wife is a winemaker). Does it make the most sense to perhaps save a few weeks of wine and then add the mother for a new batch?

    Also, does it matter how long the wine has been left out? Wine that has maybe been left out for quite awhile doesn’t always taste or smell good (i.e. has already started turning to vinegar) so is it just fine to use that or has it started getting off-flavors that won’t go away?



    • Amanda says

      Hi Tom,

      I do exactly what you suggested (or I did in the days when we entertained a lot, anyway), so I can tell you that it works fine. The amount of time it takes to fully become vinegar is going to depend on the proportion of wine you’re adding to your finished vinegar. Make sure there’s always at least 10% finished vinegar, though, and you’ll be fine. Wine that has been left out is totally fine. As you say, it’s on its way to becoming vinegar. Just make sure that it isn’t laden with fruit flies before you add it.

      I wouldn’t have any trouble adding a small amount in daily. You could treat it like a continuous brew process. I don’t know if any official vinegar-makers do it this way, but I definitely had success with my add-a-bit-when-I-have-it method.

  21. Maria says

    Ok, so my friend made 2 cups of this vinegar & it worked !! He wants to know if he can keep adding wine & vinegar to the small 2 cup batch he made or does he need to start over again ?

    Let me know !!


    • Amanda says

      It will depend on his situation. If he has a constant supply of new wine coming in, continuing to add fresh wine in might be a good solution, a la continuous brew kombucha (I made wine vinegar this way for a several years when we entertained frequently). If he doesn’t, it would probably be better to save some of the vinegar he has made as starter for the next batch (same proportions as this recipe) and enjoy the rest of what he’s made. If he’s making a very large batch, he could just use the whole two cups as starter.

  22. Lori says

    After successfully producing and straining off a bottle of red wine vinegar, I basically forgot about what was left in my fermenting jar for many months (didn’t periodically add any more wine to it. Getting back to it now, I just strained off a LOT of mother, and about 1-1/2 quarts of “vinegar.” The vinegar doesn’t taste quite right – more like a mixture of vinegar and cider or something (it looks fine – not cloudy or anything). Do you think this is salvageable if I add more fresh wine and a tiny bit of the mother back to it and let it ferment for a few more weeks? I was planning to compost the huge glob of mother that I removed. BTW, the mother looks normal, without any mold.

  23. Vian says

    Does the apple cider vinegar affect the flavor of the finished red wine vinegar? I LOVE red wine vinegar, but I cannot stand apple cider vinegar. I already make kombucha and other ferments, I would love to start making my own red wine vinegar too, but it’s next to impossible to find a red wine vinegar mother. Bragg’s ACV is everywhere though. I will give this a try and see how it turns out. Thanks!

    • Amanda says

      Hi Vian,

      A little bit. In your case, I would recommend making a small amount of red wine vinegar, and then using that whole batch as your starter to make a larger batch. That will lower the overall quantity of apple cider vinegar. Subsequent batches will be free of apple cider vinegar flavor.


  24. Barbara says

    Does it matter where you get the mother? That is, can you use red wine mother to make white wine vinegar or vice versa? Does the mother actually retain any of the original wine’s flavor? I’m asking because I already have red wine mother.

    Or if I put some Braggs apple cider vinegar in with white wine vinegar to make a mother, will the resulting vinegar taste like apple cider vinegar?

    • Amanda says

      If you’re just using the mother (aka the SCOBY or pellicle) from a different type of vinegar, the flavor will not be impacted. If you’re using a different type of vinegar as starter, though, it will impact the flavor of your next batch a little bit. In your case, I would recommend making a small amount of your “target” vinegar, and then using that whole batch as your starter to make a larger amount. That will lower the overall quantity of apple cider vinegar in your white wine vinegar batch. Subsequent batches will be free (or very nearly free) of apple cider vinegar flavor.


  25. Kirsty says

    Hi Amanda

    When I got the bottle of (commercial) balsamic vinegar out of the cupboard last night there was a huge solid layer at the top. Through Google I now know this is a “Mother” and I’ve managed to get it out of the bottle by shaking it vigorously until the Mother was in bits. Can I use it to make red wine vinegar? Should I include any of the original balsamic vinegar or just add red wine? At the moment I have all of it sat in a big jar, hoping the Mother will reform.


    • Amanda says

      Hi Kristy,
      Hmmmm. Was the vinegar raw? I’m only asking because I haven’t seen raw balsamic here in the States (not sure where you’re located) and if it was a pasteurized vinegar, I would be a tad leery of reusing something that grew in it. The other thing that gives me pause is that vinegar mothers are usually a pretty well-formed bunch. Shaking wouldn’t break apart any vinegar mother I’ve ever grown (it’s difficult enough to do with a knife or kitchen shears!). That doesn’t mean that it’s not a mother, it just probably wasn’t a very strong mother if you could shake it apart.

      If it was raw, and you feel confident that it’s a mother based on your Google search, then yes, by all means! Go forth and make vinegar. You can use any vinegar mother to make any other type of vinegar. Your I would include starter vinegar. That keeps the pH (safely) low and also adds more of the bacteria necessary for fermentation. Again, that’s if the vinegar was raw. If not, I would recommend finding a living vinegar and throwing that in the mix with some red wine. Stay small with this batch and then use that batch to make a much larger batch. That will give you a truer red wine vinegar.

      I hope that helps!

      • Kirsty says

        Thank you for the reply.

        How do I know if the venegar is raw? It says it contains an antioxidant and sulphites. I’d guess it probably isn’t as pretty much anything you buy in a shop has been treated to within an inch of being edible in order to make it edible!

        (I’m in the UK)


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