Golden beets
Some of my favorite pickles are pickled beets


So what’s the difference between canned pickles and lactopickles?  They are, in my view, kind of opposites, with different advantages and disadvantages.  Pickles made with vinegar, such as canned pickles, are sterilized to avoid stray bacteria.  Lactopickles are not sterilized and in fact are made by creating a selective environment in which wonderful, healthy lactic acid bacteria can grow and thrive.  You’ve heard of the probiotic bacteria that are so good for everything from digestion to immunity?  Yeah, it’s those guys you’re breeding so you can eat them alive.  You voracious, microbe-munching bastard.

By creating that selective environment, you allow the lactic acid bacteria naturally present on everything that grows in the earth to chow down on the sugars that are naturally present in your veggies.  When they do that, they convert said sugars into many things, including lactic acid, which then does the work of preservation.

Fermentation does a lot of things.  It helps preserve vegetables, it makes them healthier to consume and it makes them safer to consume.  What it doesn’t do is make them shelf stable for long periods of time.  If you are looking for a product you can set on your shelf for six months, a year or longer and come back to the exact same thing you put in the jar originally, you are looking for canned pickles, not fermented ones.  If you are looking for a product that will change and age and become more nutrient rich and acidic over time, you are looking for fermented pickles.

TL;DR – Canned pickles are shelf stable (very long lasting and stable), but sterile and stripped of nutrients.  Fermented pickles will continue to change over time and eventually be inedible (or soft and decayed) and are more nutrient rich than the fresh, raw vegetables that you started with.  Storing fermented pickles in a cool spot, such as a fridge or cellar will help preserve them for longer.


A few key elements impact the success of fermentation.  Two are essential, one is desirable, important and helpful.

Temperature – Room temperature is the ideal temperature for pickling.  Most sources agree that 68 degrees F (20 degrees C) is an optimal temp at which to ferment, although most also agree that anything in the 64 to 78 degree F (17.7-25.5 C) range will work just fine.  In my experience, a broad range of “room” temperatures work, and there are microclimates within any given house or apartment.  If things are starting too slow in the winter, I move my vessels closer to the heating vents, on top of the refrigerator or into the (turned off) oven.

Warmer temperatures will speed up fermentation, lower temperatures will slow it.  If temperatures are too low, fermentation may not start at all.  If they are too high, fermentation will happen too quickly, leading to a faster decomposition of your tasty ferment and, sometimes, a less crispy pickle.

Submersion – There are different kinds of fermentation.  Some require air, others require no air.  Pickles are the airless, or anaerobic type.   There are TONS of ways to create anaerobic conditions for your pickles.  I prefer to do this in a crock with weights and a water seal, in a bowl with a weighted down plate or in a jar, using the ghetto jar method.  There are definitely other ways to do this (including many that require the purchase of special jars, airlocks, lids, etc.  Lots of people use those.  At present, the freebie ways more than meet my needs, so I don’t), and I encourage you to find the one that works best for you!  But remember, you veggies MUST BE SUBMERGED if you want fermentation to happen.  Without total submersion you will get surface mold (yucky, but not deadly) or your veggies will turn to mush.  Not what you’re looking for.

Ball jar for lacto pickling
My favorite method for submersion. It’s free. Just make sure you cover with a cloth and secure it to prevent flies from getting in.

Salt – Salt is not essential for fermentation, but it is WAY better to make pickles with salt than without it.  First, salt helps to strenghten the pectins present in the vegetables, giving you a crispier pickle.  Second, the bacteria you want, lactic acid bacteria, are relatively salt-tolerant, whereas some of the less desirable bacteria aren’t.  Salt will slow fermentation and make your ferment last longer.  Salt makes everything taste better, too. And one, lesser-known benefit: fermentation makes minerals more bioavailable.  You can get salt that is pretty mineral rich and improve your uptake of its great minerals by using it in fermentation.

TL;DR – 1. Ferment pickles at room temperature. 2. Make sure your vegetables are submerged to avoid mold and allow the desirable bacteria to thrive in airless conditions.  3. Salt is a good idea for the safest and yummiest ferment possible.


There are a large number of vegetables that ferment beautifully, and a small number that ferment horribly (with a few in between).

For the most part, at this point I can predict what will ferment well by looking at it or feeling it.  Veggies that are firmer tend to ferment well, veggies that are softer tend to ferment less well.  There is a way to ferment just about everything if you adjust your expectations and your recipes.

Fermented cukes can be more challenging than their less watery counterparts.  They taste good when they turn out perfectly, but they can be a big pain in the ass. Make sure you use tannins!

Lettuces, squashes, tomatoes, cucumbers and bell peppers are some that can be challenging.   Outside of those, so many things are almost foolproof.  I encourage you to start with small batches and see how it goes.  Our friends in the brassica family are usually good places to start (turnips, radishes, etc) while beets and snap peas are probably my personal favorites. Be aware that brussels sprouts, cauliflower and broccoli can produce a strong odor (yes, the one you might think).  Combining these with other, less gassy veggies is a good way to mitigate that.

Snap peas in a jar
Snap peas are one of my favorite things to pickle. The flavor can’t be beat.

TL;DRSome unexpected veggies don’t ferment that well, but why not try in small batches to see how it works for you?


Fermentation time will vary according to your acidity preference, but my rule of thumb is one to two weeks in the summer and two weeks in the winter.  There are definitely some pickles that take longer.  They are done when they are acidic enough for you.  Since it’s not a good idea to break the air seal that submersion makes too frequently, with good picklers (see above for the ones that it’s best to avoid when first starting) start at a week.  Once you learn your preferences, you won’t have to check anymore.

Storage time will vary completely based on the vegetable fermented, the amount of salt used and the temperature at which they are stored.  I very generally try to get through or give away my pickles before three months have been reached, but I’ve eaten some pickles that were still delicious after six months or even a year. I’ve had others get too soft after 2 months.

One of my favorite thing about fermented foods is that, for the most part, they empower you to use your senses.  If it looks slimy, feels too soft or smells* or tastes “off,” it’s time for the compost pile.  If those things aren’t true, go ahead and eat them.  There is no hidden beast lying in wait to take you out.

*The first time you ferment something, it is probably a good idea to follow a recipe or some general guidelines.  Fermentation creates strong smells and flavors, and if you aren’t accustomed to eating them, you might think the “right” smells are actually wrong.  Better yet, find a more experienced buddy to guide you through your early days!

TL;DRTrust your senses.


There is surface mold – Bummer!  It looks like you didn’t get your veggies submerged properly, or maybe some bits of spice or veg floated to the surface.  If you shredded your veggies and salted and packed them (sauerkraut style) just skim off the moldy layer and eat what’s beneath.  Be more submergey next time.  If your mold isn’t raised or fuzzy, it’s probably kahm, a yeast that is naturally produced during fermentation and is totally safe to eat, but personally, I do not find it delicious, and in brined pickles, it can infuse its flavor into everything.

Kahm on pickles
This is kahm yeast, not mold. It is harmless, but it looks gross and can impart unpleasant flavors. It can sometimes be avoided by doing a better job of submerging than I did here.

They are mushy – Did you use a soft veggie?  In that case, that might not have been a good veggie choice, or you may need to add some tannins next time, in the form of oak, cherry or grape leaves.  If it was a hard veggie, ugh!  Sorry, but it didn’t ferment (or maybe it was fermenting for months too long).  If it didn’t ferment, the likely culprit is too low a temperature.  Try finding a warmer spot in your home (away from direct sunlight), like on top of the fridge, on a seed-growing mat or in the turned-off oven.

The brine is really cloudy – Yes they are good to eat, no, you didn’t use the wrong kind of salt.  Fermented brine gets cloudy because it is loaded with good stuff, like lactic acid bacteria.  Cloudy means it worked.  When you’re done with your pickles, you can drink that stuff (I know, I’m weird) or add it to cold soups for probiotic punch or bread dough for flavor and salt.


The Art of Fermentation by Sandor Katz – The ultimate compendium of current fermentation knowledge.  Katz cites the science and uncovers the process for making just about any ferment you could make in your home.  A must buy for anyone who likes fermentation and good writing.

Asian Pickles by Karen Solomon – This phenomenal guide to Far East pickles doesn’t contain exclusively fermented pickles. Solomon does such a fantastic job of explaining the various techniques for pickling around the world, that you will be inspired to immediately undertake new products to makes foods you may never have heard of before reading this book. It’s a new classic.

Wild Fermentation by Sandor Katz – The little book that started me (and many, many others) on my fermentation journey.  Full of great recipes and great insights.  not as complete as The Art of Fermentation, but a better starting point for beginners.

Real Food Fermentation by Alex Lewin – Full color photos and very specific recipes.  If you’re the type that likes to cook from a recipe, this is a wonderful place to start.




  1. Jack McClennen says:

    I am trying to make hot sauce (fermented) for the first time.
    I ground the peppers and made a brind and also added the whey from yogurt.
    I then but it in a gallon glass jug and put an airlock on it. Should I be concerned that the mash is not under liquid?
    It’s burping….
    thx, J

    • Amanda says:

      Hi Joseph,

      It is generally not recommended to can your ferments. The exception to that would be if you have means to VERY ACCURATELY measure pH, but this is something to approach with caution and with extremely specific and accurate instructions from a canning book. That’s information I can’t give you. I know next to nothing about canning, unfortunately, and those are the resources you will need to look for.
      When you can, you will kill off all of the good bacteria. Those are the guys that make a safe environment that is inhospitable to bad bacteria (namely botulinum). Depending on what type of pickles you’re making, you can probably get 9 months out of them (through fermentation without canning) if you use a higher salt percentage, jar them carefully in an appropriately sized jar and chill them once fermentation is complete.

  2. Alexa says:

    Thank you for the great information. Your site is the best designed, most easy-to-understand one that I have found. The Ghetto jar method is fantastic! I was spurred to finally try fermenting veggies when I bought a pound of farm fresh peppers that were supposed to be mild, but were in fact quite spicy (Annabelle peppers). When life gives you too many hot peppers, make hot sauce out of them! :) So, they’ve been fermenting for 2 weeks and I’m about to find out how they turned out. The brine is cloudy, there’s no mold, so things are lookin good.

    • Amanda says:

      Thanks so much, Alexa! Those peppers sound awesome! I just finished blending all but two of my hot sauce batches for the year and we are extremely happy campers over here. I hope you feel the same when you get to sample yours!

  3. thea says:

    Hi Ma’am, i was wondering what will happen to my pickles if the pH is not maintained at an acidic level? I’m afraid i don’t have means of measuring its acidity.Thanks

  4. Fig Twig says:

    Does it help to add a bit of whey to the mix? My kitchen is fairly cold this time of year and I’m wondering if I can speed things up somehow. My carrots have been pickling for a week and still look just like when I first put them in the jar.

    • Amanda says:

      No, I can’t think of a scenario when I would recommend using whey in a regular ol’ vegetable ferment. Carrots, particularly, have a decent chance of taking on an unpleasant brine consistency (a little slimy) if you add whey. Depending on the vessel you’re using, you may be able to see if there’s any activity. When you look at the top of the brine (even from the side, outside of the glass) do you see any bubbles? If you move your jar, do bubbles rush up from the bottom.

      If not, what temperature are we talking about?

      Here’s a post on why I never recommend whey for vegetable fermentation:

  5. Jennifer says:

    Hi. Have you known of people who cannot tolerate fermented foods? I love making and eating them but always seem to get pale face and dark circles under the eyes after consuming kvass/saurkraut etc. A TCM practitioner told me fermented veg accumulates nitrates and I know that nitrates in preserved meats give me hives. Maybe I ought to try fermented meats and fish instead of veg as he said that fermented animal foods don’t have the nitrates. Do you have any info on this subject? I can’t find anything. It’s interesting that D’Adamo (Blood Type Diet) says that “o” blood type should avoid fermented foods including kefir. All the best.

    • Amanda says:

      Hi Jennifer,

      Unfortunately I don’t have any information on that. I will say that fermented foods are strong foods and that not every ferment is going to be great for everyone (I for instance am not into eating the traditional Icelandic shark ferment, Hákarl). If you don’t feel good after eating fermented vegetables, I would definitely recommend not eating them anymore. You may also want to ferment them for a longer period of time or a shorter period of time, but ultimately, you need to make the decision based on how you feel.

      I do know that nitrates are also present in raw vegetables, so I wish you the best of luck in figuring out what exactly the issue is. Sorry I can’t be of more help.

  6. katie says:

    Hi, I fermented some garlic. I thought it was bad and in a freak out moment threw out the brine. I decided after to taste it, and it is not bad at all. It’s really good. But now I have no brine to store it in, and there is quite a bit of it. Do you have any suggestions? Thanks!

    • Amanda says:

      Hi Katie,

      Bummer! The best success I’ve had in situations like these is when I’ve added a brine that was half as salty as the original brine. It should help maintain your salt levels. I’m not sure exactly what’s going to happen to the brine, given that they’ve already fermented (it will depend on temp/fermentation time/etc), but give that a try and see how they go over the next several days. I hope that helps and good luck!

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